Uganda is a democratic republic with a governance system comprising national and local governments. The constitution provides for a system of decentralization and local governments, which is further consolidated in the Local Governments Act 1997 (Cap. 243). In urban settings, there are city, municipal, division/town, ward and cell councils. In rural areas, there are district councils, counties (which are administrative units without a council), sub-county councils, parish councils and village councils.

Kabarole district is headed by an elected council comprising the LCV Chairperson as the political head with an Executive Committee of 5 members drawn from the elected councilors of the 7 sub-counties and 5 town councils. The council conducts business through five policy /sectorial committees that deliberate policy matters and make recommendations to the full council. The sectorial committees include: Finance, Planning, Administration and Investment; Works, Water and Roads Committee; Production, Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, Forestry, Environment, and Marketing Committee; Community Development, Gender, Labour, Youth, Children, Elderly and Disabled; and Education, Sports, Health and Sanitation

The district is currently made up of one county. Burahya County is made up of 12 LLGs.

All the old LLGs have functioning local councils made up of elected councilors with directly elected chairpersons each. Sub counties and the Ministry of Local Government also created new parishes and several villages also gazetted a number of town boards that are equivalents of parishes.